Trunk and Neck Joints - continued


1.Type of movement permitted in each spine region mainly determined by shape and orientation of articular processes.

2.When the discs are thick, with respect to the respective vertebral bodies (cervical and lumbar regions) The RoM between adjacent vertebrae increases

3.Lateral flexion of the spine always takes place along with rotation – cannot have one without the other. Especially in the lumbar region there is always a coupling of the two. Probably this helps with lumbar stability.

4.Flexion, extension and lateral flexion all involve compression of discs on one side and stretching on the other. During flexion, anterior borders come together, and during extension, the posterior ones.

5.Most of the apparent movement of flexion is due to flexion of trunk at hips plus of the head at altanto-occipital joints

6.The lumbosacral junction represents a transition between the mobile (lumbar) and immobile (sacral) parts of the vertebral column, a lot of support against large stresses is needed for this region

7.Lumbar flexion is about 55º and extension 30º. Lateral flexion varies – 60º in pre-teen years and halved by 30 years; and then average between 20º and 30º on each side. Rotation is very small

8.Thoracic flexion/extension combined is 50º to 70º, extension much more limited than flexion. Lateral flexion is 20º to 25º on each side. Orientation of articular processes in thoracic region promotes rotation, about 35º on each side.

9.Lower cervical region total flexion/extension is about 110º , of which only 25º is flexion. Lateral flexion is 40º  each side. Flexion to one side goes with slight rotation to same side. Rotation is about 50º  each side. Further movements at atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

10.Circumduction combines flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation – all cervical joints involved

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