Anatomical Reference Planes and Axes

Cardinal Planes – 3 mutually perpendicular, imaginary planes dividing the body in half, by mass

Sagittal Plane – plane in which forward and backward movements of body/segments occur

Frontal/Caudal Plane – plane in which lateral movements of body/segments occur

Transverse Plane – plane in which horizontal movements of body/segments occur (when erect)

A human body segment rotates around an imaginary axis of rotation which passes through the joint to which it is attached:

Mediolateral Axis – Imaginary line around which sagittal plane rotations occur

Anteroposterior Axis – Imaginary line around which frontal plane rotations occur

Longitudinal Axis – Imaginary line around which transverse plane rotations occur

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