Associative Phase - Role of Coach

– The coach should design effective practice to optimize skill refinement, by first

understanding the nature of the skill (ie open or closed)

– OPEN or CLOSED skills (on a continuum) are those which do or do not depend

on the predictability of the environment to be performed.

– Closed skills such as bowling, target archery have relatively stable, predictable

environments. A movement pattern should be replicated consistently and

accurately (fixation)

– GOLF is considered more of a CLOSED skill, but has variability. (eg. a putt from a

different position requires consistency of technique, BUT same technique needs

to be used in a variety of situations such as slope, distance from hole)

– OPEN SKILLS are performed when the environment is changing and

unpredictable (eg. football)

– In the latter two cases the player must be able to adapt to changing demands of

the situation, and they ARE able to direct attention to the environment. Their attention

should be directed towards important cues

– FEEDBACK should be for correcting movement and for feeling errors

– This phase can last from a few hours, to several years for complex skills

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