Shoulder/Glenohumeral Joint


1.Head of humerus forms the ‘ball’ and glenoid fossa the ‘socket’

2.Freedom of movement has developed at the expense of stability

3.Glenoid fossa faces laterally, anteriorly and slightly superiorly; the humerus, faces superiorly, medially and posteriorly

4.The plane of the glenoid fossa lies 45º to both the frontal and sagittal planes, and TRUE flexion/extension take place perpendicular to THIS plane, with abduction/adduction about an axis parallel to the plane of the glenoid fossa. All 4 of these motions are accompanied by scapular and clvicular movement

5.Medial and lateral rotation take place about a longitudinal axis through the humerus. In lateral rotation (ROM 80º), the anterior surface of the humerus is turned laterally. In medial rotation (ROM >90º), anterior humerus turns medially. To assess ROM of shoulder rotation, the elbow must be flexed to exclude the effect of any forearm pronation/supination

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