Muscles can be uni– or bi- multi-articular

ie. can cross one, two or multiple joints (brachialis, biceps brachii, erector spinae)

BIARTICULAR MUSCLES need stabilizers and joint positioners http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/hfa213/week4/lec4bimuscle.pdf

Advantage of bi- multi-articular muscles:

– only one muscle needed to generate tension at 2 or more joints

-MORE efficient, CONSERVES energy

-muscle length stays closer to resting length, as one side

shortens the other stretches (eg.rectus femoris in hip & knee extension long & short resp.)

-Muscles more effective through entire ROM of both joints

Disadvantages -Active Insufficiency(muscle cannot shorten enough for all actions)

-Passive Insufficiency(muscle cannot lengthen enough for full ROM)

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