Law of Reaction

[Especially relevant for all sports using GRF]

GROUND REACTION FORCE (GRF) is an external force acting

on any object in contact with the ground, AND its magnitude and

direction affect the body’s VELOCITY

In RUNNING factors affecting GRF patterns include

  • Running speed
  • Running duration
  • Knee flexion angle at contact
  • Surface smoothness and stiffness
  • Footwear
  • Fatigue

When magnitude of GRF increases, dynamic loading of musculoskeletal system

has been shown to increase at 5 times the rate of increase of GRF

In GOLF: Driving distance can be maximized with larger GRFs – on

back foot during backswing and transfer of it to front foot on downswing

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