1.The ankle joint mainly comprises the tibiotalar hinge joint, although the distal tibiofibular and fibulotalar joints also share the joint capsule
2.Ankle extension is termed dorsiflexion, with a typical ROM of 25º with 2.5º external rotation of the foot. Plantar flexion ROM is about 35º with less than 1º of internal rotation of the foot
3.The movements of inversion and eversion take place at the foot (ie. foot rotation in medial and lateral directions, with the sole of the foot facing inwards and outwards respectively).
4.Abduction and adduction take place about long axis of LEG, when knee flexed
5.Supination = Inversion + Plantarflexion + Adduction
6.Pronation = Eversion + Dorsiflexion + Abduction
7.In gait, pronation reduces the magnitude of ground reaction force sustained by the leg, by increasing the time interval over which the force is sustained. The sequence is heel strike, pronation, toe off